Keelboats Center-/Daggerboard Boats
Have a heavy weight underneath them (representing around 40% of the total boat weight).  The keel has two main functions: Lift (allowing it to sail at up to 38 into the wind), and Weight, which makes it much less likely to capsize than a centerboard boat. Have a centerboard serving as a "fin".  It is located on the centerline of the boat, which also allows it to sail at up to 38.  The centerboard can be raised or lowered as needed, which comes in handy especially on shallow waters and with light winds.  The disadvantage is that the boat can capsize easily in inexperienced hands.

Multihulls/Catamarans

These are boats with two or three hulls.   This makes them very stable, although it's very possible to tip them.  The mast usually rotates together with the boom, which gives it a smooth airflow over the mast/mainsail combination.  They have a daggerboard or a keel underneath each hull, and two tillers on the opposite hulls.  The tillers are connected to a tiller extension on the main hull or the middle of the trampoline.  These are very often extremely fast boats.

Parts of a sailboat

 

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